Validation is an important aspect of the ACME and Let’s Encrypt, but there are many subtle ways that it can fail. This page is meant for people who run into problems to help figure out what the issue might be.
wacs.exe with the
--verbose parameters to watch your validation unfold in
‘slow motion’. This will run against the Let’s Encrypt staging server so you don’t risk
running into any rate limits. If you want to test against the production endpoint, include the
--baseuri https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/ as well.
ACME providers will typically validate your DNSSEC configuration. If there is anything suspicious about it, your browser might not complain, but you will not be able to get a certificate. A useful tool to check your (provider’s) DNSSEC configuration from the perspective of a strict external observer is the Unbound DNS checker.
ACME providers will check for the existence and validity of a CAA record for your domain. You may have to add a record like `example.com. CAA 0 issue “letsencrypt.org” to your DNS server in order to allow the provider to issue certificates for your domain. This can be checked using Let’s Debug.
Tools like IISCrypto are often used configure the cipher suites of Windows systems according to the latest best practices. Changing these settings always brings some risk of breaking compatibility between two parties though. Too restrictive cipher suites have been known to hamper the ability to communicate with the ACME API endpoint and its validation servers. If that happens try more conservative settings. Test if the API endpoint is accessible from a web browser on your server.
The following limitations apply to Let’s Encrypt and may not be true for every ACME service provider.
Let’s Encrypt does not support more than 100 domain names per certificate.
Let’s Encrypt can only be used to issue certificates for domains living on the public internet. Interal domains or Active Directory host names are therefor not possible to use.
HTTP validation happens on port 80, so it will have to open on your firewall(s). Let’s Encrypt doesn’t disclose IP address range(s) for their validation servers, meaning port 80 will have to be accessible from any origin, at least for the duration of the validation.
Let’s Encrypt will check IPv6 access to your site if
AAAA records are configured. Many browsers
and networks don’t use IPv6 yet or automatically fallback to IPv4 when an error occurs, so
it might not be immediately obvious that your site is unreachable on IPv6. You can test
Note that it’s recommended to use the default
SelfHosting validation plugin in combination
with IIS. The
FileSystem validation is great of other web servers such as
Apache, but using it in combination with IIS
leads to many potentials issues, described in the following sections.
Your CMS might intercept the request and redirect the user to an (error) page. The solution
is to configure your CMS to allow unlimited access to the
IIS might not be configured to serve static extensionless files.
/.well-known/acme-challenge/folder of the site (you may have to create it). Don’t do this at the root of the server or the website, because it might break your application(s).
Your website might require Windows authentication, client certificates or other
authentication methods. Enable anonymous authentication to the
path to allow access from the ACME server.
Your website might be configured to exclusively accept SSL traffic, while the validation
request comes in on port 80. Disable the “Require SSL” setting for the
/.well-known/acme-challenge/ path to fix that.
Your website might use IP Address and Domain Restrictions to provide extra security.
The ACME server will have to bypass though. Let’s Encrypt does not publicize a list of
IP addresses that they can use for validation, so this features needs to be disabled
If you are using URL Rewrite the
validation request might get caught up in that, so you have to make exceptions for
/.well-known/acme-challenge/ path. For example like so:
<rule name="LetsEncrypt Rule" stopProcessing="true"> <match url="^\.well-known/acme-challenge/.*$" /> <action type="None" /> </rule>
Let’s Encrypt may query all of your name servers, so they will have to be
in sync before submitting the challenge. The program will perform a pre-validation
‘dry run’ for a maximum of 5 times with 30 second intervals (configurable in
settings.json) to allow the DNS changes to be processed.